Emergency Departments and cardiologists will usually assess a person’s cardiac enzymes by taking blood from any patient who has chest pain or discomfort. Through assessing the blood enzymes a doctor is able to provide a more conclusive diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome (heart attack) by assessing a variety of cardiac enzymes.
The main cardiac enzymes include: tropinin I and T levels, creatinin kinase, and myoglobin.
Troponin is a protein found only in striated muscles (generally voluntary skeletal muscles and the muscles of the heart). There are three different types of troponin proteins. These are: troponin C, tropnin T and troponin I. Troponin C is found in all striated muscles, and therefore is generally irrelevant as a heart attack indicator. However, both troponin I and tropin T are mainly found in the myocardium and therefore any increase in these levels indicate recent damage to the myocardium.
There are three different types of troponin
Troponin I and T level changes can be seen in cardiac enzyme blood results within 4 hours and usually peaks within 12 hours. Troponin I and T are the most accurate, early cardiac enzyme indicators of an acute coronary syndrome. Blood results indicating tropin I levels greater than 10 mcg/L is considered indicative of recent damage to the myocardium. Blood results indicating tropin T levels greater than 0-0.1 mcg/L is considered indicative of recent damage to the myocardium.
Creatinin Kinase and Myoglobin
Creatinin Kinase and Myoglobin is found in both skeletal muscles and heart muscles. Changes in CK/Mb levels are relatively accurate in indicating recent damage to the myocardium, in the absense of recent skeletal muscle trauma. Where recent skeletal muscle trauma is suspected, such as heavy exercise or traumatic injuries, teh CK/Mb levels are irrelevant as a cardiac enzyme.